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Argentina

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Background:
In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents.



Location:
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
South America

Area:
total: 2,780,400 sq km
country comparison to the world: 8
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,861 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km

Coastline:
4,989 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
Current Weather
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 10.03%
permanent crops: 0.36%
other: 89.61% (2005)

Irrigated land:
15,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
814 cu km (2000)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 29.19 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 753 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas

Environment - current issues:
environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere



Population:
41,343,201 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.5% (male 5,399,272/female 5,152,591)
15-64 years: 63.6% (male 13,110,098/female 13,166,761)
65 years and over: 10.9% (male 1,856,535/female 2,657,944) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 30.3 years
male: 29.2 years
female: 31.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.036% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Birth rate:
17.75 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Death rate:
7.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Urbanization:
urban population: 92% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.052 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 11.11 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 148
male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.76 years
country comparison to the world: 66
male: 73.52 years
female: 80.17 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.33 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
120,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
7,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)

Nationality:
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.2%
male: 97.2%
female: 97.2% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2005)

Education expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 113



Country name:
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 40 W
time difference: UTC-3 (3 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2010

Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860

Legal system:
mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 October 2007 (next election to be held in 2011)
election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 8, ACyS 14, PJ disidente 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 45, ACyS 42, PRO 20, PJ disidente 12, other 8; note - as of 13 January 2009, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - FpV 36, ACyS 23, PJ disidente 9, other 4; Chamber of Deputies - seats by bloc or party - FpV 113, ACyS 77, PRO 26, PJ disidente 17, other 24

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate)
note: the Supreme Court has seven judges; the Argentine Congress in 2006 passed a bill to gradually reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five

Political parties and leaders:
Civic and Social Accord or ACyS (a broad center-left alliance-including the CC, UCR, and Socialist parties-created ahead of the 2009 legislative elections); Civic Coalition or CC (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO); Dissident Peronists or PJ Disidente (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Party or PJ [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Ernesto SANZ]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI] (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Esteban BULLRICH]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH] (associated with the Civic Coalition); numerous provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation); Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students

International organization participation:
AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, RG, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hector Marcos TIMERMAN
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Vilma MARTINEZ
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun



Economy - overview:
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and a bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - the largest in history - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in early 2007, with understating inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as President in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. Her government nationalized private pension funds in late 2008 in an attempt to bolster government coffers, but the move also adversely affected private investment spending.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$558 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$572.3 billion (2008 est.)
$545 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars; data are based on private estimates. Official figures lack credibility

GDP (official exchange rate):
$304.9 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-2.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
5% (2008 est.)
7.5% (2007 est.)
note: data are based on private estimates. Official estimates put growth at 0.5% in 2009, 6.8% in 2008, and 8.7% in 2007, but the official figures lack credibility

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,800 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
$14,400 (2008 est.)
$13,600 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 32%
services: 62% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
16.4 million
country comparison to the world: 37
note: urban areas only (2009 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 23%
services: 72% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
7.9% (2008 est.)
note: data are based on private estimates. Official estimates put unemployment at 8.4% in 2009, and 7.3% in 2008, but the official figures lack credibility

Population below poverty line:
13.9%
note: based on official government estimates (January-June 2009)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 32.6% (2009)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45.7 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 38

Investment (gross fixed):
20.9% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Budget:
revenues: $84.3 billion
expenditures: $86.2 billion (2009)

Public debt:
48.6% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
48.6% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
8.6% (2008 est.)
note: based on official estimates, which lack credibility; non-official estimates put inflation at 22% in 2008

Central bank discount rate:
NA%

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.47% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 6
28% (28 November 2008)

Stock of money:
$32.57 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 33
$33.93 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$46.18 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 38
$45.92 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$72.55 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$48.03 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 49
$52.31 billion (31 December 2008)
$86.68 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Industries:
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
-1.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Electricity - production:
109.5 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity - consumption:
99.21 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - exports:
2.628 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:
10.28 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:
796,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Oil - consumption:
622,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Oil - exports:
314,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Oil - imports:
52,290 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Oil - proved reserves:
2.616 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Natural gas - production:
41.36 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

Natural gas - consumption:
43.14 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - exports:
890 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Natural gas - imports:
2.66 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Natural gas - proved reserves:
441.7 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Current account balance:
$11.29 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$7.089 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$55.75 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
$57.4 billion (2008)

Exports - commodities:
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat

Exports - partners:
Brazil 18.78%, China 9.26%, Chile 7.11%, US 6.38% (2009)

Imports:
$37.13 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$54.56 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics

Imports - partners:
Brazil 31.12%, US 13.69%, China 10.26%, Germany 4.69% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$48.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$46.37 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$108.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$128.2 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$81.09 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$76.09 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$30.04 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$28.75 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar - 3.7639 (2009), 3.1636 (2008), 3.1105 (2007), 3.0543 (2006), 2.9037 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
9.631 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 22

Telephones - mobile cellular:
46.509 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 22

Telephone system:
general assessment: the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998" opened the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground
international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2009)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 260, FM (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code:
.ar

Internet hosts:
4.906 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 16

Internet users:
11.212 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 28



Airports:
1,130 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 6

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 156
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 51
under 914 m: 10 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 974
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
914 to 1,523 m: 522
under 914 m: 406 (2009)

Heliports:
2 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 28,248 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 5,977 km; refined products 3,636 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 31,409 km
country comparison to the world: 8
broad gauge: 27,301 km 1.676-m gauge (94 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,780 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,328 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
total: 231,374 km
country comparison to the world: 22
paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)

Waterways:
11,000 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 11

Merchant marine:
total: 46
country comparison to the world: 72
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 9, chemical tanker 2, container 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 14 (Brazil 1, Chile 7, Spain 2, UK 4)
registered in other countries: 19 (Liberia 3, Panama 8, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 3) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Arroyo Seco, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin



Military branches:
Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental permission); no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 9,934,765
females age 16-49: 9,868,008 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 8,366,206
females age 16-49: 8,344,321 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 340,570
female: 323,953 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 146

Military - note:
the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently experienced a strong recovery, and the military is implementing a modernization plan aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive (2008)



Disputes - international:
Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2006, Argentina went to the ICJ to protest, on environmental grounds, the construction of two pulp mills in Uruguay on the Uruguay River, which forms the boundary; both parties presented their pleadings in 2007 with Argentina's reply in January and Uruguay's rejoinder in July 2008; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Argentina is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; most victims are trafficked within the country, from rural to urban areas; child sex tourism is a problem; foreign women and children, primarily from Paraguay, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic, are trafficked to Argentina for commercial sexual exploitation; Argentine women and girls are also trafficked to neighboring countries, Mexico, and Western Europe for sexual exploitation; a significant number of Bolivians, Peruvians, and Paraguayans are trafficked into the country for forced labor in sweatshops, agriculture, and as domestic servants
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - despite some progress, Argentina remains on the Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, particularly in terms of providing adequate assistance to victims and curbing official complicity with trafficking activity, especially on the provincial and local levels; the Argentine Congress has demonstrated progress by enacting much-needed and first-ever federal anti-trafficking legislation (2009)

Illicit drugs:
a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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