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Austria / Österreich

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Background:
Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. In January 2009, Austria assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2009-10 term.



Location:
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 83,871 sq km
country comparison to the world: 113
land: 82,445 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
Current Weather
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Terrain:
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 16.59%
permanent crops: 0.85%
other: 82.56% (2005)

Irrigated land:
40 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
84 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 3.67 cu km/yr (35%/64%/1%)
per capita: 448 cu m/yr (1999)

Natural hazards:
landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere



Population:
8,214,160 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.3% (male 599,735/female 571,690)
15-64 years: 67.6% (male 2,789,503/female 2,762,789)
65 years and over: 18.1% (male 620,782/female 869,661) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 42.6 years
male: 41.5 years
female: 43.6 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.042% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191

Birth rate:
8.65 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215

Death rate:
10.05 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Net migration rate:
1.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Urbanization:
urban population: 67% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.051 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 200
male: 5.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.65 years
country comparison to the world: 28
male: 76.74 years
female: 82.71 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.39 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,800 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)

Languages:
German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA
female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 51



Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Government type:
federal republic

Capital:
name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence:
976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:
National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945; note - during the period 1 May 1934-1 May 1945 there was a fascist (corporative) constitution in place

Legal system:
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal; note - reduced from 18 years of age in 2007

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Werner FAYMANN (SPOe) (since 2 December 2008); Vice Chancellor Josef PROELL (OeVP) (since 2 December 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held on 25 April 2010 (next to be held on 25 April 2016); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Heinz FISCHER reelected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 79.3%, Barbara ROSENKRANZ 15.2%, Rudolf GEHRING 5.4%
note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP

Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members chosen by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 members in proportion to its population; members serve five- or six-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held on 28 September 2008 (next to be held by September 2013)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 29.3%, OeVP 26%, FPOe 17.5%, BZOe 10.7%, Greens 10.4%, other 6.1%; seats by party - SPOe 57, OeVP 51, FPOe 34, BZOe 21, Greens 20

Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Josef BUCHER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Josef PROELL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Werner FAYMANN]; The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic); Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights

International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christian PROSL
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William C. EACHO III
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner



Economy - overview:
Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Following several years of solid foreign demand for Austrian exports and record employment growth, the international financial crisis and global economic downturn in 2008 led to a recession that persisted until the third quarter of 2009. Austrian GDP contracted 3.5% in 2009 but it will probably see positive growth of nearly 2% in 2010. Unemployment has not risen as steeply in Austria as elsewhere in Europe, partly because its government has subsidized reduced working hour schemes to allow companies to retain employees. Such stabilization measures, stimulus initiatives, and the government's income tax reforms pushed the budget deficit to about 4% of GDP in 2009, from only about 1.3% in 2008. The Austrian economy has benefited greatly in the past from strong commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe, but these sectors have been vulnerable to recent international financial instabilities. Some of Austria's largest banks have required government support - including in some instances, nationalization - to prevent insolvency and possible regional contagion. In the medium-term all large Austrian banks will need additional capital. Even after the global economic outlook improves, Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor participation to offset growing unemployment and Austria's aging population and exceedingly low fertility rate.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$323.1 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$335.1 billion (2008 est.)
$328.5 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$378.8 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-3.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
2% (2008 est.)
3.5% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$39,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
$40,800 (2008 est.)
$40,100 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.5%
industry: 29.8%
services: 69% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
3.68 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 27.5%
services: 67% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
4.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
3.8% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:
6% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 127
31 (1995)

Investment (gross fixed):
20.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Budget:
revenues: $175 billion
expenditures: $188.3 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
69.3% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
62.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
3.2% (2008 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.82% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 134
6.3% (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$606.2 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 19
$504.8 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$104.8 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 44
$72.3 billion (31 December 2008)
$228.7 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries:
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
-16.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Electricity - production:
66.78 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Electricity - consumption:
68.37 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Electricity - exports:
14.93 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
19.8 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
25,410 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72

Oil - consumption:
273,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Oil - exports:
50,160 bbl/day (2008)
country comparison to the world: 78

Oil - imports:
263,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Oil - proved reserves:
50 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - production:
1.668 billion cu m (2009)
country comparison to the world: 59

Natural gas - consumption:
8.232 billion cu m (2009)
country comparison to the world: 50

Natural gas - exports:
3.961 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Natural gas - imports:
10.96 billion cu m (2009)
country comparison to the world: 20

Natural gas - proved reserves:
16.14 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Current account balance:
$8.73 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$13.44 billion (2008)

Exports:
$129 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$172.2 billion (2008)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
Germany 30.96%, Italy 8.17%, Switzerland 4.99%, US 3.99% (2009)

Imports:
$138.7 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$179.8 billion (2008)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
Germany 45.07%, Switzerland 6.76%, Italy 6.66%, Netherlands 4.03% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$18.05 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$16.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$808.9 billion (30 September 2009)
country comparison to the world: 13
$864.2 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$286.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$279.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$290.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
$286 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
3.285 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 47

Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.816 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 58

Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership eclipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available
international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)

Radio broadcast stations:
FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2009)

Television broadcast stations:
9 (2010)

Internet country code:
.at

Internet hosts:
2.992 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 26

Internet users:
5.937 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 39



Airports:
55 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 84

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 14 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 26 (2009)

Heliports:
1 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 2,721 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 6,399 km
country comparison to the world: 29
standard gauge: 5,927 km 1.435-m gauge (3,688 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 384 km 1.000-m gauge (15 km electrified); 88 km 0.760-m gauge (10 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
total: 107,262 km
country comparison to the world: 40
paved: 107,262 km (includes 1,677 km of expressways) (2006)

Waterways:
358 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 90

Merchant marine:
total: 4
country comparison to the world: 134
by type: cargo 2, container 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
registered in other countries: 4 (Cyprus 1, Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna



Military branches:
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation:
18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for male or female voluntary service; service obligation 6 months of training, followed by an 8-year reserve obligation; conscripts cannot be deployed in military operations outside Austria (2009)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,960,781
females age 16-49: 1,926,134 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,595,379
females age 16-49: 1,566,884 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 49,455
female: 47,046 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 150



Disputes - international:
while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the newly elected Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Austria block the Czech Republic's accession to the EU unless Prague closed its nuclear power plant in Temelin, bordering Austria

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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