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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosna i Hercegovina

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Background:
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Troop strength at the end of 2009 stood at roughly 2,000. In January 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2010-11 term.



Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 51,197 sq km
country comparison to the world: 128
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,538 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 249 km, Serbia 357 km

Coastline:
20 km

Maritime claims:
no data available

Climate:
Current Weather
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain:
mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 19.61%
permanent crops: 1.89%
other: 78.5% (2005)

Irrigated land:
30 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
37.5 cu km (2003)

Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east



Population:
4,621,598 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.2% (male 339,507/female 318,352)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 1,652,435/female 1,623,549)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 281,248/female 406,507) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 40.3 years
male: 39.1 years
female: 41.5 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.016% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193

Birth rate:
8.87 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Death rate:
8.71 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Urbanization:
urban population: 47% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.074 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.88 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 157
male: 10.18 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.66 years
country comparison to the world: 42
male: 75.09 years
female: 82.49 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.26 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
900 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
100 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:
Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages:
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.7%
male: 99%
female: 94.4% (2000 est.)

Education expenditures:
NA



Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Government type:
emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina and formally held in condominium between the two entities; the District remains under international supervision

Independence:
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
the Dayton Peace Accords, signed on 14 December 1995 in Paris, included a constitution; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution

Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Haris SILAJDZIC (chairman since 6 March 2010; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak); other members of the three-member presidency rotate every eight months: Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Croat); and Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the state-level House of Representatives
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years); the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC with 39.6% of the votes for the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC with 62.8% of the votes for the Bosniak seat
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 February 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since 21 February 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since 21 February 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Rajko KUZMANOVIC (since 28 December 2007)

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats, 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats, 28 seats allocated for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats for the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures
elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in February 2007 (next to be constituted in 2011); state-level House of Representatives - elections last held on 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9, SBiH 8, SNSD 7, SDP 5, HDZ-BH 3, HDZ1990 2, SDS 2, PDP 1, DP 1, other 4
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other); last constituted February 2007; and a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held on 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28, SBiH 20, SDP 17, HDZ-BH 7, HDZ1990 4, other 22; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held on 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41, SDS 15, PDP 7, DNS 4, SBiH 4, SPRS 3, SDA 3, other 6; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including 8 Croats, 8 Bosniaks, 8 Serbs, and 4 members of the smaller communities

Judicial branch:
BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of 44 national judges and seven international judges and has three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and cases initiated in the entities that question BiH's sovereignty, political independence, or national security or with economic crimes that have serious repercussions to BiH's economy, beyond that of an entity or Brcko District); a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005
note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five district courts and a number of municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB-BiH [ Fahrudin RADONCIC]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants' Party-New Croat Initiative or HSS-NHI [Ljiljana LOVRIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifat DOLIC]; Democratic Party or DP [Dragan CAVIC]; Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; Nasa Stranka or NS [Bojan BAJIC]; New Socialist Party or NSP [Zdravko KRSMANOVIC]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Peoples' Party of Work for Progress or NSRzB [Mladen IVANKOVIC-LIJANOVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Mirko BLAGOJEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of BiH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Nermin PECANAC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media

International organization participation:
BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mitar KUJUNDZIC
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles L. ENGLISH
embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia



Economy - overview:
The interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-08 when GDP growth exceeded 5% per year. However, due in large part to the global economic crisis, GDP fell by about 3% in 2009, exports fell 24%, and unemployment - as officially reported - rose above 40%. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, now control most of the banking sector. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Bosnia's private sector is growing and foreign investment is slowly increasing, but government spending, at nearly 50% of adjusted GDP, remains high because of redundant government offices at the state, entity and municipal level. Privatization of state enterprises, however, has been slow, particularly in the Federation where political division between ethnically-based political parties makes agreement on economic policy more difficult. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious macroeconomic problems. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a predictable source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray market activity. National-level statistics have also improved over time but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. In 2009, Bosnia's economy was hurt by the global financial downturn, with GDP, exports, and employment all showing declines. One of Bosnia's main challenges has been to cut public sector wages and social benefits to meet the IMF's budget deficit criteria and qualify for additional tranches of Fund aid.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$29.07 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
$30.09 billion (2008 est.)
$28.55 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
Bosnia has a large informal sector that may be as much as 50% of official GDP

GDP (official exchange rate):
$17.16 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-3.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
5.4% (2008 est.)
6% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$6,300 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
$6,600 (2008 est.)
$6,300 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.5%
industry: 26%
services: 64.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
1.863 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 124

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 20.5%
industry: 32.6%
services: 47% (2008)

Unemployment rate:
40% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
29% (2007 est.)
note: official rate; gray economy may reduce actual unemployment to 25-30%

Population below poverty line:
25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
56.2 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 11

Budget:
revenues: $7.857 billion
expenditures: $8.736 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
44% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
40% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
7.4% (2008 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.98% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 126
7.17% (31 December 2007)

Stock of money:
$4.49 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 72
$5.13 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$5.614 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 78
$5.597 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$10.26 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 77
$8.895 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:
steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
-3.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Electricity - production:
11.32 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Electricity - consumption:
8.488 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Electricity - exports:
4.344 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:
3.743 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204

Oil - consumption:
30,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Oil - exports:
192 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134

Oil - imports:
25,990 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98

Natural gas - consumption:
310 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Natural gas - imports:
310 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Current account balance:
-$1.279 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
-$2.764 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$4.057 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$5.194 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
Croatia 19.07%, Slovenia 18.58%, Italy 16.87%, Germany 13.38%, Austria 10.25% (2009)

Imports:
$8.785 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
$12.29 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
Croatia 22.17%, Germany 14.04%, Slovenia 13.45%, Italy 11.89%, Austria 6.61%, Hungary 5.74% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.398 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
$3.516 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$8.415 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$7.388 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar - 1.4352 (2009), 1.3083 (2008), 1.4419 (2007), 1.5576 (2006), 1.5727 (2005)
note: the convertible mark is pegged to the euro



Telephones - main lines in use:
1.031 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 80

Telephones - mobile cellular:
3.179 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 107

Telephone system:
general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by a internationally sponsored program under EBRD, resulting in sharp increases in the number of fixed telephone lines available
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 22 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and, in 2008, reached 70 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
33 (1995)

Internet country code:
.ba

Internet hosts:
69,370 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 79

Internet users:
1.308 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 81



Airports:
25 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 132

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (2009)

Heliports:
5 (2009)

Railways:
total: 1,000 km
country comparison to the world: 89
standard gauge: 1,000 km 1.435-m gauge (590 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
total: 21,846 km
country comparison to the world: 107
paved: 11,425 km (4,714 km of interurban roads)
unpaved: 10,421 km (2006)

Waterways:
Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava River), Orasje



Military branches:
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air and Air Defense Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzracna Obrana, ZPO) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in January 2006; 4-month service obligation (2009)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,194,832
females age 16-49: 1,156,698 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 980,425
females age 16-49: 948,791 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 26,134
female: 24,518 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21



Disputes - international:
sections along the Drina River remain in dispute between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 7,269 (Croatia)
IDPs: 131,600 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced in 1992-95 war) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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