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Czech Republic / Česká Republika

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Background:
Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.



Location:
Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria

Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 78,867 sq km
country comparison to the world: 115
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,989 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 815 km, Poland 615 km, Slovakia 197 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
Current Weather
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain:
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber

Land use:
arable land: 38.82%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 58.18% (2005)

Irrigated land:
240 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
16 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 1.91 cu km/yr (41%/57%/2%)
per capita: 187 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:
flooding

Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe



Population:
10,201,707 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.5% (male 706,453/female 668,166)
15-64 years: 70.7% (male 3,624,662/female 3,583,106)
65 years and over: 15.9% (male 642,258/female 977,062) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 40.4 years
male: 38.9 years
female: 42.2 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.106% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211

Birth rate:
8.76 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Death rate:
10.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Net migration rate:
0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Urbanization:
urban population: 73% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.059 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 211
male: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.01 years
country comparison to the world: 61
male: 73.74 years
female: 80.48 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.25 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 10 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups:
Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59% (2001 census)

Languages:
Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8% (2001 census)

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 93



Country name:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Cesko

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
name: Prague
geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky, Kralovehradecky, Liberecky, Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky, Pardubicky, Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky, Vysocina, Zlinsky

Independence:
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs generally consider 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day

National holiday:
Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution:
ratified on 16 December 1992, effective on 1 January 1993; amended in 1997, 2000, 2001 (twice), 2002

Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; legal code modified to bring it in line with European Union obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Petr NECAS (since 28 June 2010); First Deputy Prime Minister Karel SCHWARZENBERG (since 13 July 2010), Deputy Prime Minister Radek JOHN (since 13 July 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held on 15 February 2008 (after earlier elections held 8 and 9 February 2008 were inconclusive; next election to be held in 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav KLAUS reelected president on 15 February 2008; Vaclav KLAUS 141 votes, Jan SVEJNAR 111 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in two rounds on 17-18 and 24-25 October 2008 (next to be held by October 2010); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28-29 May 2010 (next to be held by 2014)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 36, CSSD 29, KDU-CSL 7, Open Democracy Club 6, others 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 22.1%, ODS 20.2%, TOP-09 16.7%, KSCM 11.3%, VV 10.9%; seats by party - CSSD 56, ODS 53, TOP-09 41, KSCM 26, VV 24

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; Supreme Administrative Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders:
Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Helmut DOHNALEK]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Cyril SVOBODA]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jiri PAROUBEK]; Green Party [Ondrej LISKA]; Open Democracy Club (a liberal parliamentary group within the Czech senate); Public Affairs (VV) [Radek JOHN]; Tradice Odpovednost Prosperita 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG]; Union of Freedom-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Jan CERNY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Milan STECH]

International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Petr KOLAR
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mary THOMPSON-JONES
embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] 257 022 000
FAX: [420] 257 022 809

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
note: uses the pan-Slavic colors and is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia



Economy - overview:
The Czech Republic is one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Maintaining an open investment climate has been a key element of the Czech Republic's transition from a communist, centrally planned economy to a functioning market economy. As a member of the European Union, with an advantageous location in the center of Europe, a relatively low cost structure, and a well-qualified labor force, the Czech Republic is an attractive destination for foreign investment. Prior to its EU accession in 2004, the Czech government harmonized its laws and regulations with those of the European Union. The small, open, export-driven Czech economy grew by over 6% annually from 2005-2007 and by 2.5% in 2008. The conservative Czech financial system has remained relatively healthy throughout 2009. Nevertheless, the real economy contracted by 4.1% in 2009, mainly due to a significant drop in external demand as the Czech Republic's main export markets fell into recession.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$256.6 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$267.6 billion (2008 est.)
$261.1 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$191.9 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-4.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
2.5% (2008 est.)
6.1% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$25,100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$26,200 (2008 est.)
$25,500 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 37.2%
services: 60.5% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
5.401 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 40.2%
services: 56.2% (2007)

Unemployment rate:
8.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
5.4% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 131
25.4 (1996)

Investment (gross fixed):
22.7% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

Budget:
revenues: $78.9 billion
expenditures: $90.22 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
34.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
27.3% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
6.3% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 130
2.25% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.25% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 140
5.79% (31 December 2007)

Stock of money:
$86.56 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 18
$84.43 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$58.69 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 35
$58.77 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$110.5 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 39
$103.9 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$54.48 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 53
$48.85 billion (31 December 2008)
$73.42 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry

Industries:
motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate:
-13.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Electricity - production:
82.72 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

Electricity - consumption:
61.65 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity - exports:
19.99 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
8.52 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
10,970 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Oil - consumption:
207,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Oil - exports:
22,560 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Oil - imports:
213,900 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Oil - proved reserves:
15 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Natural gas - production:
176 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - consumption:
8.182 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Natural gas - exports:
1.111 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Natural gas - imports:
9.683 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - proved reserves:
3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Current account balance:
-$2.146 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
-$6.642 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$112.6 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$145.7 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuel, chemicals

Exports - partners:
Germany 32.25%, Slovakia 9.02%, Poland 5.8%, France 5.62%, UK 4.93%, Austria 4.71%, Italy 4.38% (2009)

Imports:
$103.1 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$139.4 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners:
Germany 30.67%, Poland 6.97%, Slovakia 6.6%, Netherlands 5.99%, China 5.7%, Austria 5.26%, Russia 4.93%, Italy 3.98% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$41.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$36.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$76.83 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$80.43 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$117 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$114.4 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$11.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$9.913 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
koruny (CZK) per US dollar - 19.373 (2009), 17.064 (2008), 20.53 (2007), 22.596 (2006), 23.957 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
2.278 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53

Telephones - mobile cellular:
13.78 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 48

Telephone system:
general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
71 (2008)

Internet country code:
.cz

Internet hosts:
3.233 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 24

Internet users:
6.028 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 38



Airports:
122 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 48

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 18 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 78
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 50 (2009)

Heliports:
1 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 7,010 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 9,620 km
country comparison to the world: 22
standard gauge: 9,521 km 1.435-m gauge (3,013 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 99 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
total: 128,582 km
country comparison to the world: 37
paved: 128,582 km (includes 691 km of expressways) (2008)

Waterways:
664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 77

Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 161

Ports and terminals:
Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem



Military branches:
Army of the Czech Republic (ACR): Joint Forces Command (includes Land Forces and Air Forces), Support and Training Forces Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18-28 years of age for voluntary and 19-28 for compulsory military service (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,517,268
females age 16-49: 2,418,163 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,086,662
females age 16-49: 2,003,055 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 55,139
female: 52,440 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.46% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103



Disputes - international:
while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the popular Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Austria block the Czech Republic's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its controversial Soviet-style nuclear plant in Temelin, bordering Austria

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy (2008)

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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