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Ecuador

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Background:
What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Protests in Quito have contributed to the mid-term ouster of Ecuador's last three democratically elected Presidents. In September 2008, voters approved a new constitution; Ecuador's twentieth since gaining independence. General elections, under the new constitutional framework, were held in April 2009.



Location:
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates:
2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references:
South America

Area:
total: 283,561 sq km
country comparison to the world: 73
land: 276,841 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline:
2,237 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500-m isobath

Climate:
Current Weather
tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain:
coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
note: due to the fact that the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet furthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea-level

Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 5.71%
permanent crops: 4.81%
other: 89.48% (2005)

Irrigated land:
8,650 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
432 cu km (2000)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 16.98 cu km/yr (12%/5%/82%)
per capita: 1,283 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world



Population:
14,790,608 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.6% (male 2,308,484/female 2,216,312)
15-64 years: 63.1% (male 4,602,511/female 4,733,405)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 447,568/female 482,328) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 25.3 years
male: 24.7 years
female: 25.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.466% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Birth rate:
20.32 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187

Net migration rate:
-0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Urbanization:
urban population: 66% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 20.26 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 101
male: 23.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.52 years
country comparison to the world: 81
male: 72.58 years
female: 78.6 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.46 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
26,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,400 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%

Languages:
Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 92.3%
female: 89.7% (2001 census)

Education expenditures:
1% of GDP (2001)
country comparison to the world: 179



Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday:
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)

Constitution:
20 October 2008

Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal, compulsory for persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: President Rafael CORREA Delgado reelected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 52%; Lucio GUTIERREZ 28.2%; Alvaro NOBOA 11.4%; other 8.4%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (124 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 59, PSP 19, PSC 11, PRIAN 7, MPD 5, PRE 3, other 20; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch:
National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (according to the Constitution, justices are elected through a procedure overseen by the Judiciary Council); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (Constitutional Court justices are appointed by a commission composed of two delegates each from the Executive, Legislative, and Transparency branches of government)

Political parties and leaders:
Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Christian Democratic Union or UDC [Luis ACOSTA Moreta]; Democratic Left or ID [Dalton BACIGALUPO]; Ethical and Democratic Network or RED [Martha ROLDOS]; Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Vicente TAIANO]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Jorge GUAMAN Coronel]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Pulley, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Silvia SALGADO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Marlon SANTI, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SALTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Luis Alberto ANDRANGO Cadena, president]

International organization participation:
CAN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Benigno GALLEGOS Chiriboga
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Heather HODGES
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Columbia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms



Economy - overview:
Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of public sector revenues in recent years. In 1999/2000, Ecuador suffered a severe economic crisis, with GDP contracting by more than 6%. Poverty increased significantly, the banking system collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. From 2002-06 the economy grew 5.5%, the highest five-year average in 25 years. The poverty rate declined during this period but remained high at 38% in 2006. After moderate growth in 2007, the economy reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2008, in large part due to high global petroleum prices. Poverty levels declined to about 35% by the end of 2008. President Rafael CORREA, who took office in January 2007, raised the specter of a sovereign debt default and followed through on those threats in December 2008, defaulting on $3.2 billion in international bonds, representing over 80% of Ecuador's private external debt. Economic policies under the CORREA administration - including an announcement in late 2009 terminating 13 bilateral investment treaties, one with the US - have generated economic uncertainty and discouraged both domestic and foreign private investment. The Ecuadorian economy contracted in 2009, mainly due to the global financial crisis, and also the sharp decline in world oil prices and remittance flows.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$108.2 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$109.3 billion (2008 est.)
$102.6 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$56.27 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
6.5% (2008 est.)
2.5% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$7,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
$7,600 (2008 est.)
$7,300 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 35.2%
services: 58% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
4.77 million (urban) (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 8.3%
industry: 21.2%
services: 70.4% (2005)

Unemployment rate:
8.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
7.3% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:
35.1% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 43.3%
note: data for urban households only (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
47.9 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 31
50.5 (2006)
note: data are for urban households

Investment (gross fixed):
22.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Budget:
revenues: $16.84 billion
expenditures: planned $18.9 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
22.1% of GDP (November 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
25.1% of GDP (2008)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
8.4% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
note: as a dollarized economy, the Central Bank does not implement money market operations with private banks

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 100
9.14% (31 December 2008)

Stock of money:
$9.215 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 55
$5.907 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of quasi money:
$9.79 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 64
$9.383 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of domestic credit:
$14.56 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 73
$14.3 billion (31 December 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$4.248 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 83
$4.562 billion (31 December 2008)
$4.266 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate:
-0.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72

Electricity - production:
16.42 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Electricity - consumption:
15.81 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Electricity - exports:
20.68 million kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:
1.12 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:
485,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Oil - consumption:
181,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

Oil - exports:
327,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Oil - imports:
54,190 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Oil - proved reserves:
4.66 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Natural gas - production:
260 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Natural gas - consumption:
260 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.919 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Current account balance:
-$337.4 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
$1.12 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$14.34 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$19.15 billion (2008)

Exports - commodities:
petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, hemp, wood, fish

Exports - partners:
US 34.41%, Peru 10.05%, Chile 7.15%, Panama 5.3%, Colombia 4.58%, Russia 4.11% (2009)

Imports:
$14.27 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
$17.78 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods

Imports - partners:
US 26.93%, Venezuela 10.15%, Colombia 9.42%, China 8.02%, Brazil 4.35% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.792 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
$4.473 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$13.28 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$16.82 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$11.61 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$11.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$8.055 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$8.413 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
1 (2009)
note: the US dollar is legal tender



Telephones - main lines in use:
1.91 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 58

Telephones - mobile cellular:
11.595 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 52

Telephone system:
general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded
domestic: fixed-line services provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 14 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership reached about 85 per 100 persons in 2008
international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2000)

Internet country code:
.ec

Internet hosts:
57,785 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 80

Internet users:
1.31 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 80



Airports:
420 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 19

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 103
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 54 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 317
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 279 (2009)

Heliports:
2 (2009)

Pipelines:
extra heavy crude 435 km; gas 5 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 1,301 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 965 km
country comparison to the world: 91
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
total: 43,670 km
country comparison to the world: 86
paved: 6,472 km
unpaved: 37,198 km (2006)

Waterways:
1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 54

Merchant marine:
total: 37
country comparison to the world: 80
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)
registered in other countries: 5 (China 1, Panama 4) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar



Military branches:
Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2007)

Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age for selective conscript military service; 12-month service obligation (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,662,176
females age 16-49: 3,781,102 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,770,465
females age 16-49: 3,217,235 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 150,296
female: 145,184 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 137



Disputes - international:
organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 11,526 (Colombia); note - UNHCR estimates as many as 250,000 Columbians are seeking asylum in Ecuador, many of whom do not register as refugees for fear of deportation (2007)

Illicit drugs:
significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008)

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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