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Lithuania / Lietuvos

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Background:
Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.



Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates:
56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 65,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 122
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,574 km
border countries: Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline:
90 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:
Current Weather
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain:
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 294 m

Natural resources:
peat, arable land, amber

Land use:
arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)

Irrigated land:
70 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
24.5 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 3.33 cu km/yr (78%/15%/7%)
per capita: 971 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits



Population:
3,545,319 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.9% (male 253,753/female 240,590)
15-64 years: 69.7% (male 1,213,921/female 1,258,587)
65 years and over: 16.3% (male 199,822/female 378,646) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 39.7 years
male: 37.1 years
female: 42.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.276% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218

Birth rate:
9.21 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205

Death rate:
11.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Net migration rate:
-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Urbanization:
urban population: 67% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.057 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.37 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 176
male: 7.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.12 years
country comparison to the world: 88
male: 70.23 years
female: 80.29 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.24 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups:
Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)

Languages:
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.6% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
5% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 73



Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus

Independence:
11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004

Legal system:
based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE 69.1%, Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS 11.8%, Valentinas MAZURONIS 6.2%, others 12.9%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members elected by popular vote, 70 elected by proportional representation; members to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7%, TPP 15.1%, TT 12.7%, LSDP 11.7%, KDP+J 9%, LRLS 5.7%, LCS 5.3%, LLRA 4.8%, LVLS 3.7%, NS 3.6%, other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44, LSDP 26, TPP 16, TT 15, LRLS 11, KDP+J 10, LCS 8, LLRA 3, LVLS 3, NS 1, independent 4; note - seats by faction as of 15 March 2010 - TS-LKD 46, LSDP 25, TT 18, Christian Party 12, LS 11, DP 10, LCS 7, TPP 7, unaffiliated 5; note - TS-LKD, LS, LCS, and TPP form the ruling coalition

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:
Christian party [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Algimantas MATULEVICIUS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Gintautas BABRAVICIUS]; Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]; Lithuanian Farmers' Union or LVLS or VLS [ Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]; Lithuanian People's Party (not yet officially established) [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union (Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS]

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland



Economy - overview:
Lithuania gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession, Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors, and Russia in particular, accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy. Lithuania's economy grew on average 8% per year for the four years prior to 2008 driven by exports and domestic demand. However, GDP plunged 15% in 2009 - the three former Soviet Baltic republics had the world's worst economic declines last year. The current account deficit rose to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08, but fell sharply in 2009 in the wake of a cutback in imports to almost half the 2008 level. Unemployment reached 13.7% in 2009, up from 5.8% in 2008. In 2009 the government launched a high-profile campaign, led by Prime Minister KUBILIUS, to attract foreign investment and to develop export markets.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$54.84 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$64.52 billion (2008 est.)
$62.76 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$36.39 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-15% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
2.8% (2008 est.)
9.8% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$15,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
$18,100 (2008 est.)
$17,600 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 26.7%
services: 69.1% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
1.641 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 29.1%
services: 56.9% (2005)

Unemployment rate:
13.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
5.8% (2008 est.)
note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7%

Population below poverty line:
4% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 85
34 (1999)

Investment (gross fixed):
18.3% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Budget:
revenues: $13.1 billion
expenditures: $16.16 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
31.7% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
15.6% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
10.9% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
1.75% (February 2010)
country comparison to the world: 108
4.73% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.27% (February 2010)
country comparison to the world: 87
10.15% (31 December 2008)

Stock of money:
$8.55 billion (January 2010)
country comparison to the world: 56
$9.519 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of quasi money:
$8.731 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$8.419 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of domestic credit:
$29.21 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 59
$25.05 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$4.619 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 85
$3.625 billion (31 December 2008)
$10.13 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish

Industries:
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry

Industrial production growth rate:
-21.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163

Electricity - production:
12.09 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Electricity - consumption:
9.612 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Electricity - exports:
6.606 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
5.649 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
6,333 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Oil - consumption:
74,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89

Oil - exports:
137,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Oil - imports:
204,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45

Oil - proved reserves:
12 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164

Natural gas - consumption:
3.53 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162

Natural gas - imports:
3.53 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Current account balance:
$1.422 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
-$5.627 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$16.42 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$23.77 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
mineral products 22%, machinery and equipment 10%, chemicals 9%, textiles 7%, foodstuffs 7%, plastics 7%

Exports - partners:
Russia 13.27%, Latvia 10.03%, Germany 9.69%, Poland 7.21%, Estonia 7.17%, Netherlands 5.09%, Belarus 4.73%, UK 4.4% (2009)

Imports:
$17.5 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
$29.51 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals

Imports - partners:
Russia 30.16%, Germany 11.16%, Poland 9.96%, Latvia 6.35%, Netherlands 4.06% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$6.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$6.441 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$36.43 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$32.47 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$13.81 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$12.89 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.307 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$1.99 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
litai (LTL) per US dollar - 2.5337 (2009), 2.3251 (2008), 2.5362 (2007), 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
784,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 88

Telephones - mobile cellular:
5.023 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 87

Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 140 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
44 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2008)

Internet country code:
.lt

Internet hosts:
885,064 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 39

Internet users:
1.777 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 72



Airports:
87 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 67

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 55
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 51 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 1,695 km; refined products 114 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 1,765 km
country comparison to the world: 78
broad gauge: 1,743 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
total: 81,030 km
country comparison to the world: 58
paved: 71,563 km (includes 309 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,467 km (2008)

Waterways:
441 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 86

Merchant marine:
total: 45
country comparison to the world: 73
by type: cargo 23, container 2, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 13
foreign-owned: 6 (Denmark 5, Ukraine 1)
registered in other countries: 28 (Antigua and Barbuda 5, Cook Islands 1, North Korea 1, Malta 1, Norway 1, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Klaipeda



Military branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos, KOP), National Defense Volunteer Forces (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
19-26 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation; male registration required at age 16 (2009)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 900,746
females age 16-49: 887,843 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 674,265
females age 16-49: 734,806 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 21,606
female: 20,536 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124



Disputes - international:
Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Illicit drugs:
transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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