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Macedonia / Македонија


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Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. Fully implementing the Framework Agreement and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made on both fronts over the past several years.

Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates:
41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references:

total: 25,713 sq km
country comparison to the world: 149
land: 25,433 sq km
water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries:
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Current Weather
warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

Natural resources:
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)

Irrigated land:
550 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
6.4 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.27
per capita: 1,118 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
high seismic risks

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

2,072,086 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.8% (male 202,149/female 187,801)
15-64 years: 69.7% (male 728,036/female 715,357)
65 years and over: 11.5% (male 103,327/female 135,416) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 35.4 years
male: 34.4 years
female: 36.5 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.257% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Birth rate:
11.92 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Death rate:
8.87 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Net migration rate:
-0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

urban population: 67% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.077 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.76 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 159
male: 8.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.92 years
country comparison to the world: 89
male: 72.4 years
female: 77.64 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.58 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups:
Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)

Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)

Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2005)

Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2002)
country comparison to the world: 129

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
84 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Gjorce Petrov) (Skopje), Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the 10 municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality

8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)

National holiday:
Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day

adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001, 2005 and in 2009
note: amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights, in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary, and in 2009 with amendments related to the threshold required to elect the president

Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, BDI/DUI, and several small parties
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election: first round held on 22 March 2009, second round held on 5 April 2009 (next to be held in March 2014); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Gjorge IVANOV elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV 63.1%, Ljubomir FRCKOSKI 36.9%

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 June and 15 June 2008 (next to be held by July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 49%, SDSM-led block 24%, BDI/DUI 13%, PDSh/DPA 8%, other 6%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 63, SDSM-led block 27, BDI/DUI 18, PDSh/DPA 11, PEI 1

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; Republican Judicial Council
note: the Assembly appoints the judges

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Alliance or DS [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of the Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Turks in Macedonia [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIJEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Borce STOJANOVSKI]; Movement for Reconstruction of Macedonia or DOM [Liljana POPOVSKA]; New Alternative [Gjorgji OROVCANEC]; New Democracy or DR [Imer SELMANI]; New Social-Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Action in Macedonia or SDAM [Avdija PEPIC]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Social-Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]; Socialist Party or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonia or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Union of Roma of Macedonia [Amdi BAJRAM]; United for Macedonia or OM [Ljube BOSKOVSKI]; VMRO-Macedonian [Borislav STOJMENOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Dojcin CVETANOSKI]

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan), Chicago

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip T. REEKER
embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 310-2000
FAX: [389] 2 310-2499

Flag description:
a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia

Economy - overview:
Having a small, open economy makes Macedonia vulnerable to economic developments in Europe and dependent on regional integration and progress toward EU membership for continued economic growth. At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. In 2001, during a civil conflict, the economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth averaged 4% per year during 2003-06 and more than 5% per year during 2007-08. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains high at 32%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20% of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics. In the wake of the global economic downturn, Macedonia has experienced decreased foreign direct investment, lowered credit, and a large trade deficit, but the financial system remained sound. Macroeconomic stability was maintained by a prudent monetary policy, which kept the domestic currency at the pegged level against the euro, at the expense of raising interest rates. As a result, GDP fell in 2009.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$18.77 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
$19.05 billion (2008 est.)
$18.09 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
Macedonia has a large informal sector

GDP (official exchange rate):
$8.929 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-1.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
5% (2008 est.)
5.9% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
$9,200 (2008 est.)
$8,800 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12.1%
industry: 29.5%
services: 58.4% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
929,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 18.6%
industry: 29.5%
services: 51.9% (September 2009)

Unemployment rate:
32.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
33.8% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:
28.7% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39 (2003)
country comparison to the world: 68

Investment (gross fixed):
21.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

revenues: $2.914 billion
expenditures: $3.161 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
32.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
28.7% of GDP (2008)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
8.3% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 60
6.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.33% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 97
9.68% (31 December 2008)

Stock of money:
$1.224 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 107
$1.307 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of quasi money:
$3.132 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 98
$3.254 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of domestic credit:
$4.143 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 90
$3.906 billion (31 December 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$2.859 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 101
$823.5 million (31 December 2008)
$2.715 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs

food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate:
-7.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

Electricity - production:
6.162 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Electricity - consumption:
7.797 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports:
1.635 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Oil - consumption:
20,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

Oil - exports:
4,672 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Oil - imports:
20,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161

Natural gas - consumption:
80 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Natural gas - imports:
82 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163

Current account balance:
-$646 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
-$1.21 billion (2008 est.)

$2.687 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
$3.971 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel

Exports - partners:
Germany 20.31%, Greece 13.09%, Italy 11.08%, Bulgaria 10.61%, Croatia 7.74% (2009)

$4.844 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
$6.523 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products

Imports - partners:
Germany 15.11%, Greece 14.88%, Bulgaria 9.08%, Italy 7.68%, Turkey 7.59%, Slovenia 6.26%, Hungary 4.31% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.292 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$2.109 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$5.458 billion (31 September 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
$4.658 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$3.528 billion (31 October 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
$3.357 billion (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:
Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar - 45.129 (2009), 41.414 (2008), 44.732 (2007), 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005)

Telephones - main lines in use:
457,100 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 102

Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.502 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 116

Telephone system:
general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership approaching 150 per 100 persons
international: country code - 389 (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 68, shortwave 0 (2009)

Television broadcast stations:
76 (2009)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
57,763 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 81

Internet users:
847,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 97

14 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 151

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2009)

gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2009)

total: 699 km
country comparison to the world: 105
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (234 km electrified) (2009)

total: 4,723 km (includes 208 km of expressways)
country comparison to the world: 153
paved: 4,113 km
unpaved: 590 km (2007)

Military branches:
Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV); Special Operations Regiment; Logistic Support Command; Training Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 530,966
females age 16-49: 511,534 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 442,953
females age 16-49: 425,981 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 15,338
female: 14,445 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
6% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Disputes - international:
Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: fewer than 1,000 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement


Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010




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