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The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates:
43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references:

total: 2 sq km
country comparison to the world: 248
land: 2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

4.1 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Current Weather
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources:

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban

30,586 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Age structure:
0-14 years: 12.6% (male 1,973/female 1,881)
15-64 years: 61.3% (male 9,390/female 9,349)
65 years and over: 26.1% (male 3,555/female 4,438) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 48.9 years
male: 48 years
female: 49.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.183% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215

Birth rate:
7.03 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 223

Death rate:
8.01 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Net migration rate:
-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

urban population: 100% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.048 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 1.78 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 224
male: 2.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 1.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 89.78 years
country comparison to the world: 1
male: 85.81 years
female: 93.9 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.5 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 91

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

name: Monaco
geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday:
National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)

17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002

Legal system:
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)
cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPM 52.2%, REM 40.5%, Monaco Together 7.3%; seats by party - UPM 21, REM 3

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)

Political parties and leaders:
Monaco Together; Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM)

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador to the US and Representative to the UN Gilles NOGHES
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 552-5778
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners
note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

Economy - overview:
Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a major banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$976.3 million (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

GDP - real growth rate:
NA% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$30,000 (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0%
industry: 4.9%
services: 95.1% (2005)

Labor force:
country comparison to the world: 191
note: includes workers from all foreign countries (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
0% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 1

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

revenues: $863 million
expenditures: $920.6 million (2005 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (2000)
country comparison to the world: 70

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:

tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh

Electricity - imports:
NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by France

$716.3 million (2005)
country comparison to the world: 158
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

$916.1 million (2005)
country comparison to the world: 171
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Debt - external:
$18 billion (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)

Telephones - main lines in use:
35,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 175

Telephones - mobile cellular:
22,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 206

Telephone system:
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100%
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 11, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:
5 (1998)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
22,608 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 100

Internet users:
22,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 189

1 (2007)

total: 50 km
country comparison to the world: 216
paved: 50 km (2007)

Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 70 (Bahamas 15, Georgia 4, Isle of Man 3, Liberia 8, Marshall Islands 13, Norway 5, Panama 16, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Vanuatu 1) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 61

Ports and terminals:

Military branches:
no regular military forces; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,814 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,680
females age 16-49: 4,691 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 147
female: 133 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France

Disputes - international:


Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010




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