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San Marino

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Background:
The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.



Location:
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates:
43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 61 sq km
country comparison to the world: 228
land: 61 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about one third times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
Current Weather
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain:
rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural resources:
building stone

Land use:
arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines



Population:
31,477 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,821/female 2,466)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 9,985/female 10,635)
65 years and over: 17.7% (male 2,468/female 3,102) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 42.1 years
male: 41.3 years
female: 42.8 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.106% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Birth rate:
9.18 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207

Death rate:
7.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Net migration rate:
9.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Urbanization:
urban population: 94% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.086 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.79 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 191
male: 4.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 82.95 years
country comparison to the world: 3
male: 80.45 years
female: 85.68 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.46 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Nationality:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups:
Sammarinese, Italian

Religions:
Roman Catholic

Languages:
Italian

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%

Education expenditures:
NA



Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle

Independence:
3 September 301

National holiday:
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)

Constitution:
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Marco CONTI and Captain Regent Glauco SANSOVINI (for the period 1 April-1 October 2010)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2009 (next to be held in March 2010); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)
election results: Francesco MUSSONI and Stefano PALMIERI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2%: PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%; Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8%: Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%; seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35: PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2; Reforms and Freedom coalition 25: Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2

Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democrats or PDCS [Pasquale VALENTINI]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Democrats of the Center or DdC [Giovanni LONGERNINI]; Freedom List (including NPS and We Sammarinesi) or NS [Gabriele GATTEI]; New Socialist Party or NPS [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PDS [Paride ANDREOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Carlo FRANCIOSI]; Union of Moderates (including National Alliance or ANS [Glcuco SANSOVINI] and San Marino Populars or pop [Romeo MORRI and Angela VENTURINI]; United Left of SU [Alessandro ROSSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:
CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: 202-337-2260

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively



Economy - overview:
San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries, as well as on the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food. San Marino boasts the world's longest life expectancy for men with 80 years. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. San Marino has recently faced increased international pressure to improve cooperation with foreign tax authorities and transparency within its own banking sector, which generates about one-fifth of the country's tax revenues. Italy's implementation in October 2009 of a tax amnesty to repatriate untaxed funds held abroad has resulted in financial outflows from San Marino to Italy worth more than $4.5 billion. Such outflows, combined with a money-laundering scandal at San Marino's largest financial institution and the recent global economic downturn, have contributed to a deep recession and growing budget deficit. However, San Marino has no national debt, and an unemployment rate half the size of Italy's. The San Marino government has adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. San Marino also continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully implement global tax standards.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.662 billion (2007)
country comparison to the world: 188
$850 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.048 billion (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$41,900 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 18

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 46.5%
services: 53.4% (2007)

Labor force:
22,660 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 207

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 37.7%
services: 62.2% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
3.1% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 26

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $690.6 million
expenditures: $652.9 million (2006)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-3.5% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 3
-1.5% (2006)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
7.58% (31 December 2007)

Stock of money:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$NA (31 December 2008)
$7.511 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:
wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

Industries:
tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate:
3.1% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 42

Exports:
$4.628 billion (2007)
country comparison to the world: 104
$1.291 billion (2004)

Exports - commodities:
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Imports:
$3.744 billion (2007)
country comparison to the world: 127
$2.035 billion (2004)

Imports - commodities:
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6734 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
21,300 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 193

Telephones - mobile cellular:
17,700 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 209

Telephone system:
general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2008)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:
1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Internet country code:
.sm

Internet hosts:
6,734 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 132

Internet users:
17,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 192



Roadways:
total: 292 km
country comparison to the world: 204
paved: 292 km (2006)



Military branches:
no regular military forces; voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,893 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,564
females age 16-49: 6,068 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 176
female: 164 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
NA

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy



Disputes - international:
none

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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