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Slovakia / Slovenskej Republiky

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The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro area on 1 January 2009.

Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references:

total: 49,035 sq km
country comparison to the world: 130
land: 48,105 sq km
water: 930 sq km

Area - comparative:
about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 1,474 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 197 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 420 km, Ukraine 90 km

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Current Weather
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources:
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use:
arable land: 29.23%
permanent crops: 2.67%
other: 68.1% (2005)

Irrigated land:
1,830 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
50.1 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 1.04
per capita: 193 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

5,470,306 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 439,331/female 419,123)
15-64 years: 71.7% (male 1,954,798/female 1,966,611)
65 years and over: 12.6% (male 258,157/female 432,286) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 37.3 years
male: 35.7 years
female: 38.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.129% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

Birth rate:
10.55 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182

Death rate:
9.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Net migration rate:
0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

urban population: 56% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.051 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.71 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 173
male: 7.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.62 years
country comparison to the world: 79
male: 71.7 years
female: 79.74 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.36 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups:
Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)

Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)

Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2004)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 111

Country name:
conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday:
Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998; amended February 2001
note: the change in September 1998 allowed direct election of the president; the amendment of February 2001 allowed Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership

Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Iveta RADICOVA (since 8 July 2010); Deputy Prime Ministers Jan FIGEL, Jozef MIHAL, Rudolf CHMEL (since 9 July 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 March and 4 April 2009 (next to be held no later than April 2014); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 55.5%, Iveta RADICOVA 44.5%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 June 2010 (next to be held in June 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 34.8%, SDKU-DS 15.2%, SaS 12.1%, KDH 8.5%, Most-Hid 8.1%, SNS 5.1%, other 16.2%; seats by party - Smer 62, SDKU-DS 28, SaS 22, KDH 15, Most-Hid 14, SNS 9

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)

Political parties and leaders:
parties in the Parliament:: Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]; Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan FIGEL]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]
selected parties outside the Parliament:: Alliance for a Europe of Nations or AZEN [Milan URBANI]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter ZAJAC]; Green Party or SZ [Peter PILINSKY]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Marek BLAHA]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; People's Party - Our Slovakia or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef HRDLICKA]; Slovenska Pospolitost [Marian KOTLEBA]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]; Union - Party for Slovakia or Unia [Milan CELIK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter BURIAN
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Keith EDDINS
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the pan-Slavic colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

Economy - overview:
Slovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. Reforms to the taxation, healthcare, pension, and social welfare systems helped Slovakia to consolidate its budget and get on track to join the EU in 2004 and to adopt the euro in January 2009. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost entirely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive and electronic sectors has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-08 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 7.7% in 2008 but remains the economy's Achilles heel. Despite its 2006 pre-election promises to loosen fiscal policy and reverse the previous DZURINDA government's pro-market reforms, FICO's cabinet has thus far been careful to keep a lid on spending in order to meet euro adoption criteria and has focused on regulating energy and food prices instead. To maintain a stable operating environment for investors, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development advised the Slovak government to refrain from intervening in important sectors of the economy. However, Bratislava's approach to mitigating the economic slowdown includes substantial government intervention and the option to nationalize strategic companies. GDP fell nearly 5% in 2009 and unemployment rose above 12%, as the global recession impacted many segments of the economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$115.7 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$121.4 billion (2008 est.)
$114.3 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$89.33 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-4.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
6.2% (2008 est.)
10.6% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$21,200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$22,300 (2008 est.)
$21,000 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 34.4%
services: 63%

Labor force:
2.641 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 27%
services: 69.4% (December 2009)

Unemployment rate:
11.4% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 126
7.7% (2008)

Population below poverty line:
21% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 130
26.3 (1996)

Investment (gross fixed):
23.6% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

revenues: $30.01 billion
expenditures: $35.99 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
37.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
28.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 61
4.6% (2008)

Central bank discount rate:
1% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 116
4.25% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

Stock of money:
$847.3 million (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 117
$868.8 million (31 December 2007)
note: this figure represents the US dollar value of Slovak koruny in circulation prior to Slovakia joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Stock of quasi money:
$23.15 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 50
$17.16 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$46.59 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 54
$42.96 billion (31 December 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$4.672 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 79
$5.079 billion (31 December 2008)
$6.971 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate:
-8.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134

Electricity - production:
25.9 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Electricity - consumption:
28.75 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Electricity - exports:
8.891 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
9.412 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
4,114 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Oil - consumption:
79,930 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Oil - exports:
74,070 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72

Oil - imports:
148,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Oil - proved reserves:
9 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Natural gas - production:
103 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Natural gas - consumption:
6.493 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - exports:
15 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Natural gas - imports:
6.974 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29

Natural gas - proved reserves:
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Current account balance:
-$2.906 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
-$6.195 billion (2008 est.)

$55.32 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$72.57 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment 35.9%, vehicles 21%, base metals 11.3%, chemicals and minerals 8.1%, plastics 4.9% (2009 est.)

Exports - partners:
Germany 19.91%, Czech Republic 13.02%, France 7.72%, Poland 7.26%, Hungary 6.48%, Italy 6.06%, Austria 5.88%, UK 4.71% (2009)

$53.67 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$73.62 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 31%, mineral products 13%, vehicles 12%, base metals 9%, chemicals 8%, plastics 6% (2009 est.)

Imports - partners:
Czech Republic 18.8%, Germany 17.9%, Russia 8.75%, Hungary 7.11%, South Korea 5.97%, Austria 5.05%, Poland 4.93%, France 4.75%, Italy 4.28% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.16 billion (31 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$18.78 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$69.55 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$52.53 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$45.88 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$45.93 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.334 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
$1.901 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
Slovak koruny (SKK) per US dollar - 0.734 (2009), 21.05 (2008), 24.919 (2007), 29.611 (2006), 31.018 (2005)
note: on 1 January 2009 Slovakia adopted the euro as legal tender

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.098 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 75

Telephones - mobile cellular:
5.52 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 83

Telephone system:
general assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 22, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:
37 (2008)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
867,615 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 41

Internet users:
3.566 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53

35 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 109

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 7 (2009)

1 (2009)

gas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2009)

total: 3,622 km
country comparison to the world: 48
broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,473 km 1.435-m gauge (1,577 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2008)

total: 43,761 km
country comparison to the world: 85
paved: 38,085 km (includes 316 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,676 km (2006)

172 km (on Danube River) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 100

Merchant marine:
total: 51
country comparison to the world: 70
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 42, refrigerated cargo 4
foreign-owned: 47 (Bulgaria 6, Germany 3, Greece 2, Ireland 1, Israel 4, Italy 2, Poland 2, Russia 1, Slovenia 1, Syria 2, Turkey 10, Ukraine 12, UK 1) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Bratislava, Komarno

Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,413,079
females age 16-49: 1,377,754 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,162,282
females age 16-49: 1,147,526 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 33,915
female: 32,448 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.87% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Disputes - international:
bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy


Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010




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