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Slovenia/ Slovenija

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Background:
The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.



Location:
Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
46 07 N, 14 49 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 20,273 sq km
country comparison to the world: 154
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,086 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 455 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 199 km

Coastline:
46.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:
Current Weather
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain:
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

Land use:
arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)

Irrigated land:
30 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
32.1 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.9
per capita: 457 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:
flooding; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes



Population:
2,003,136 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145

Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.5% (male 139,227/female 130,998)
15-64 years: 69.9% (male 705,625/female 694,487)
65 years and over: 16.6% (male 130,683/female 202,116) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 42.1 years
male: 40.4 years
female: 43.7 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.142% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Birth rate:
8.92 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211

Death rate:
10.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Net migration rate:
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Urbanization:
urban population: 48% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 204
male: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.12 years
country comparison to the world: 60
male: 73.45 years
female: 81.03 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.29 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
280 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups:
Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)

Religions:
Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)

Languages:
Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
6% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 42



Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Government type:
parliamentary republic

Capital:
name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: the Government of Slovenia has reported 210 municipalities

Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday:
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution:
adopted 23 December 1991, amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000

Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Borut PAHOR (since 7 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held on 8 October 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 21 September 2008 (next National Assembly elections to be held in 8 October 2012)
election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Borut PAHOR elected prime minister by National Assembly vote

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of a National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 21 September 2008 (next to be held on 8 October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - SD 30.5%, SDS 29.3%, ZARES 9.4%, DeSUS 7.5%, SNS 5.5%, SLS+SMS 5.2%, LDS 5.2%, other 7.4%; seats by party - SD 29, SDS 28, ZARES 9, DeSUS 7, SNS 5, SLS+SMS 5, LDS 5, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK (acting)]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Radovan ZERJAV]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor GOLOBIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]
other: Catholic Church

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD (accession state), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roman KIRN
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Bradley FREDEN
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands



Economy - overview:
Slovenia became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has become a model of economic success and stability for the region. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe, Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002, and the economy has one of highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In December 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the accession process for joining the OECD. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average, and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. In 2009, the world recession caused the economy to contract - through falling exports and industrial production - by more than 7%, and unemployment to rise above 9%.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$55.84 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
$60.24 billion (2008 est.)
$58.21 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$50.13 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-7.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
3.5% (2008 est.)
6.8% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$27,900 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
$30,000 (2008 est.)
$29,000 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 30.9%
services: 66.6% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
945,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 35%
services: 62.8% (2009)

Unemployment rate:
9.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
6.7% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:
12.3% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24.6% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.4 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 120
23.8 (2004)

Investment (gross fixed):
24% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Budget:
revenues: $20.06 billion
expenditures: $22.8 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
31.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
22.5% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
5.7% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
3% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 92
5% (31 December 2007)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7.41% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 129
6.82% (31 December 2007)

Stock of money:
$10.5 billion (30 September 2009)
country comparison to the world: 51
$9.347 billion (31 December 2006)
note: the figure for 2006 represents the US dollar value of tolars in circulation prior to Slovenia joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Stock of quasi money:
$15.9 billion (30 September 2009)
country comparison to the world: 56
$12.69 billion (31 December 2006)

Stock of domestic credit:
$46.4 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 55
$45 billion (31 December 2008)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$28.1 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 60
$22.1 billion (31 December 2008)
$28.96 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate:
-15.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Electricity - production:
13 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Electricity - consumption:
14.7 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Electricity - exports:
7.82 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
6.218 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
5 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Oil - consumption:
60,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184

Oil - imports:
57,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Natural gas - consumption:
1.05 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Natural gas - imports:
1.05 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

Current account balance:
-$117 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
-$3.267 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$22.58 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$29.61 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

Exports - partners:
Germany 19.36%, Italy 11.31%, Croatia 7.75%, Austria 7.42%, France 7.35% (2009)

Imports:
$23.44 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
$33.49 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food

Imports - partners:
Germany 16.46%, Italy 15.89%, Austria 11.81%, France 4.98%, Croatia 4.32% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.08 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
$956.5 million (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$55 billion (31 August 2009)
country comparison to the world: 47
$54.61 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$15.23 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$15.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$8.711 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$7.878 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007)



Telephones - main lines in use:
1.01 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 81

Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.055 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 123

Telephone system:
general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
31 (2006)

Internet country code:
.si

Internet hosts:
88,567 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 75

Internet users:
1.126 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 84



Airports:
16 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 143

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 840 km; oil 11 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 1,228 km
country comparison to the world: 85
standard gauge: 1,228 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2007)

Roadways:
total: 38,709 km
country comparison to the world: 90
paved: 38,709 km (includes 579 km of expressways) (2007)

Waterways:
some transport on Drava River (2008)

Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 29 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Liberia 3, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 1, Slovakia 1) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 86

Ports and terminals:
Koper



Military branches:
Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)

Military service age and obligation:
17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 483,488
females age 16-49: 470,325 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 397,440
females age 16-49: 385,505 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 9,979
female: 9,610 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91



Disputes - international:
the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia

Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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