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Spain / España

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Background:
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government continues to battle the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization, but its major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the severe economic recession that started in mid-2008.



Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France

Geographic coordinates:
40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 505,370 sq km
country comparison to the world: 51
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km
note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 1,917.8 km
border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline:
4,964 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)

Climate:
Current Weather
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain:
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources:
coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 27.18%
permanent crops: 9.85%
other: 62.97% (2005)

Irrigated land:
37,800 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
111.1 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 37.22 cu km/yr (13%/19%/68%)
per capita: 864 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts, occasional flooding

Environment - current issues:
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas



Population:
40,548,753 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.5% (male 3,034,315/female 2,854,287)
15-64 years: 67.1% (male 13,660,912/female 13,552,221)
65 years and over: 18.4% (male 3,111,644/female 4,335,374) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 41.5 years
male: 40.1 years
female: 42.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.045% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Birth rate:
9.54 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201

Death rate:
10.08 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60

Net migration rate:
0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Urbanization:
urban population: 77% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.16 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 207
male: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.18 years
country comparison to the world: 21
male: 76.88 years
female: 83.7 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.32 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
140,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
2,300 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

Nationality:
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups:
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religions:
Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%

Languages:
Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%, are official regionally

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.9%
male: 98.7%
female: 97.2% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
4.2% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 100



Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana

Government type:
parliamentary monarchy

Capital:
name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Spain is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands

Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna (Catalonia), Comunidad Valenciana (Valencian Community), Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)
note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)

Independence:
1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain

National holiday:
National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas

Constitution:
approved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; signed by the king 27 December 1978

Legal system:
civil law system with regional applications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968
head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA Sanz (since 18 April 2004), Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Elena SALGADO Mendez (since 8 April 2009), and Third Vice President (and Minister of Regional Affairs) Manuel CHAVES Gonzalez (since 8 April 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 and 11 April 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president
election results: Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO reelected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - 46.9%

Legislative branch:
bicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (264 seats as of 2008; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 56 - as of 2008 - appointed by the regional legislatures; members to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held by March 2012); Congress of Deputies - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held by March 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 101, PSOE 88, Entesa Catalona de Progress 12, CiU 4, PNV 2, CC 1, members appointed by regional legislatures 56; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 43.6%, PP 40.1%, CiU 3.1%, PNV 1.2%, ERC 1.2%, other 10.8%; seats by party - PSOE 169, PP 154, CiU 10, PNV 6, ERC 3, other 8; note - seats by party in the Congress of Deputies as of 15 December 2009 - PSOE 169, PP 153, CiU 10, PNV 6, ERC 3, other 9

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political parties and leaders:
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU Renteria]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Guillerme VAZQUEZ Vazquez]; Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta]; Navarra Yes or NaBai [collective leadership] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Joan PUIGCERCOS i Boixassa]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO]; Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo]; Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez]; United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish for "Enough is Enough"); grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Nunca Mais (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge DEZCALLAR de Mazarredo
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan D. SOLOMONT
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag description:
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre



Economy - overview:
Spain's mixed capitalist economy is the 12th largest in the world, and its per capita income roughly matches that of Germany and France. However, after almost 15 years of above average GDP growth, the Spanish economy began to slow in late 2007 and entered into a recession in the second quarter of 2008. Spain's unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 19% in December 2009 and continues to rise. Its fiscal deficit worsened from 3.8% of GDP in 2008 to about 7.9% of GDP in 2009, more than double the EMU limit. GDP contracted by 3.6% from 2008, ending a 16-year growth trend. The economy is projected to resume modest growth sometime in 2010, making Spain the last major economy to emerge from the global recession. The reversal in Spain's economic growth reflects a significant decline in the construction sector, an oversupply of housing, falling consumer spending, and slumping exports. Government efforts to boost the economy through stimulus spending, extended unemployment benefits, and loan guarantees have not prevented a sharp rise in the unemployment rate, which was the highest in the EU in 2009. Spain's banking sector has been relatively insulated from the global financial crisis, due in part to conservative oversight by the Bank of Spain. Government intervention to rescue banks on the scale seen elsewhere in Europe in 2008 and 2009 was not necessary in Spain, although Spanish banks' high exposure to the collapsed domestic construction and real estate market poses continued risks for the sector. The government intervened in one regional savings bank in 2009, and others have merged out of necessity.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.368 trillion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.419 trillion (2008 est.)
$1.406 trillion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.466 trillion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-3.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
0.9% (2008 est.)
3.6% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$33,700 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$35,000 (2008 est.)
$34,800 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 26.8%
services: 70% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
23.04 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:
18% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
11.3% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line:
19.8% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 102
32.5 (1990)

Investment (gross fixed):
24.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Budget:
revenues: $420.4 billion
expenditures: $536.3 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
53.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
39.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
4.1% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
3% (May 2009)
country comparison to the world: 91
5% (31 December 2007)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11.02% (31 December 2008)

Stock of money:
$NA
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Stock of quasi money:
$NA

Stock of domestic credit:
$3.45 trillion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 7
$2.976 trillion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.132 trillion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 11
$946.1 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.8 trillion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries:
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
-10.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Electricity - production:
300.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Electricity - consumption:
276.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - exports:
16.92 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
5.88 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
27,230 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Oil - consumption:
1.482 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Oil - exports:
226,900 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Oil - imports:
1.813 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Oil - proved reserves:
150 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Natural gas - production:
13 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Natural gas - consumption:
33.88 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Natural gas - exports:
975 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

Natural gas - imports:
34.67 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Current account balance:
-$74.47 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
-$154.1 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$226.8 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$285.9 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods

Exports - partners:
France 19.27%, Germany 11.11%, Portugal 9.21%, Italy 8.24%, UK 6.18% (2009)

Imports:
$290.4 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$415.5 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments

Imports - partners:
Germany 15.02%, France 12.82%, Italy 7.17%, China 5.8%, Netherlands 5.22%, UK 4.7% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$28.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
$20.25 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$2.41 trillion (30 June 2009)
country comparison to the world: 6
$2.317 trillion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$652.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
$628.6 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$633.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$601.6 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
20.2 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 15

Telephones - mobile cellular:
49.682 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 21

Telephone system:
general assessment: well developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 persons
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 175 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 18, FM 250, shortwave 2 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:
379 (2008)

Internet country code:
.es

Internet hosts:
3.537 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 23

Internet users:
25.24 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 12



Airports:
153 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 35

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 95
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 23 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 58
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 39 (2009)

Heliports:
9 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 7,738 km; oil 560 km; refined products 3,445 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 15,288 km
country comparison to the world: 18
broad gauge: 11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)
standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,949 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
total: 681,224 km
country comparison to the world: 10
paved: 681,224 km (includes 13,872 km of expressways) (2006)

Waterways:
1,000 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 65

Merchant marine:
total: 158
country comparison to the world: 41
by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 14, chemical tanker 11, container 22, liquefied gas 11, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 47, petroleum tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 15, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 26 (Canada 4, Denmark 2, Germany 5, Italy 2, Mexico 3, Norway 5, UK 5)
registered in other countries: 110 (Angola 1, Argentina 2, Bahamas 14, Belize 1, Brazil 9, Cape Verde 1, Cuba 1, Cyprus 6, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 50, Portugal 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, UK 1, Uruguay 6, Venezuela 1) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia



Military branches:
Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 9,851,306
females age 16-49: 9,574,929 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 8,040,207
females age 16-49: 7,798,254 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 193,038
female: 181,703 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121



Disputes - international:
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Illicit drugs:
despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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