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Sweden / Sverige

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Background:
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.



Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates:
62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
total: 450,295 sq km
country comparison to the world: 55
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline:
3,218 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
Current Weather
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain:
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources:
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 5.93%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 94.06% (2005)

Irrigated land:
1,150 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
179 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.68 cu km/yr (37%/54%/9%)
per capita: 296 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues:
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas



Population:
9,074,055 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 725,864/female 684,459)
15-64 years: 65.2% (male 2,994,552/female 2,920,481)
65 years and over: 19.3% (male 777,219/female 971,480) (2010 est.)

Median age:
total: 41.7 years
male: 40.6 years
female: 42.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.16% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184

Birth rate:
10.14 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Death rate:
10.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Net migration rate:
1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Urbanization:
urban population: 85% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.061 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 2.74 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 221
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.97 years
country comparison to the world: 11
male: 78.69 years
female: 83.4 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Nationality:
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups:
indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Religions:
Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%

Languages:
Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2006)

Education expenditures:
7.1% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 21



Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland

Independence:
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday:
Swedish Flag Day, 6 June (1916); National Day, 6 June (1983)

Constitution:
1 January 1975

Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually the prime minister

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 35%, Moderates 26.2%, Center Party 7.9%, Liberal People's Party 7.5%, Christian Democrats 6.6%, Left Party 5.8%, Greens 5.2%; seats by party - Social Democrats 130, Moderates 97, Center Party 29, Liberal People's Party 28, Christian Democrats 24, Left Party 22, Greens 19

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders:
Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party (liberal-conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Children's Rights in Society; Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO; Swedish Federation of Trade Unions or LO
other: media

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jonas HAFSTROM
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew W. BARZUN
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64

Flag description:
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field



Economy - overview:
Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for little more than 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of a sustained economic upswing, boosted by increased domestic demand and strong exports. This and robust finances offered the center-right government considerable scope to implement its reform program aimed at increasing employment, reducing welfare dependence, and streamlining the state's role in the economy. Despite strong finances and underlying fundamentals, the Swedish economy slid into recession in the third quarter of 2008 and growth continued downward in the first half of 2009 as deteriorating global conditions reduced export demand and consumption.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$333.5 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$348.9 billion (2008 est.)
$350.6 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$402.4 billion (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-4.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
-0.5% (2008 est.)
2.7% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$36,800 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$38,600 (2008 est.)
$38,800 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 26.7%
services: 71.6% (2009 est.)

Labor force:
4.91 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 28.2%
services: 70.7% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
6.2% (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
23 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 134
25 (1992)

Investment (gross fixed):
17.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Budget:
revenues: $217.6 billion
expenditures: $221.1 billion (2009 est.)

Public debt:
35.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
36.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
3.5% (2008 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
2% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 124
3.5% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 150
4% (2004)

Stock of money:
$185.4 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 11
$217.1 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$54.55 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 37
$48.49 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$549 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 20
$630.8 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 23
$252.5 billion (31 December 2008)
$612.5 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk

Industries:
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate:
-9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Electricity - production:
144 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Electricity - consumption:
134.5 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - exports:
14.71 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:
12.75 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:
4,833 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Oil - consumption:
328,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Oil - exports:
219,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

Oil - imports:
542,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Natural gas - consumption:
1.229 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Natural gas - imports:
1.229 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Current account balance:
$29.5 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$40.32 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:
$130.8 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$185.9 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - partners:
Norway 10.61%, Germany 10.2%, UK 7.45%, Denmark 7.35%, Finland 6.44%, US 6.36%, France 5.05%, Netherlands 4.67% (2009)

Imports:
$120.5 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$167.8 billion (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:
Germany 17.9%, Denmark 8.9%, Norway 8.7%, Netherlands 6.17%, UK 5.56%, Finland 5.14%, France 5.06%, China 4.79% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$47.29 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$29.72 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$669.1 billion (30 June 2009)
country comparison to the world: 14
$617.3 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$269.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$256.6 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$346.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$313.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar - 7.821 (2009), 6.4074 (2008), 6.7629 (2007), 7.3731 (2006), 7.4731 (2005)



Telephones - main lines in use:
5.323 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 30

Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.988 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 57

Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 124, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television broadcast stations:
252 (2008)

Internet country code:
.se

Internet hosts:
3.886 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 20

Internet users:
8.1 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 32



Airports:
249 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 26

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 152
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 36 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 92 (2009)

Heliports:
2 (2009)

Pipelines:
gas 786 km (2009)

Railways:
total: 11,633 km
country comparison to the world: 20
standard gauge: 11,568 km 1.435-m gauge (7,531 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
total: 425,300 km
country comparison to the world: 15
paved: 139,300 km (includes 1,740 km of expressways)
unpaved: 286,000 km (2008)

Waterways:
2,052 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 43

Merchant marine:
total: 195
country comparison to the world: 34
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 23, carrier 1, chemical tanker 45, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 37, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 25
foreign-owned: 41 (Denmark 4, Estonia 2, Finland 12, Germany 5, Italy 9, Norway 7, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 207 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 4, Barbados 7, Bermuda 20, Cook Islands 8, Cyprus 2, Denmark 6, Finland 2, France 9, Germany 1, Gibraltar 13, Isle of Man 1, Italy 1, Liberia 10, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 28, Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 34, Panama 6, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 20, UK 17, US 5) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Lulea, Malmo, Stenungsund, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby



Military branches:
Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18-47 years of age for male compulsory or voluntary military service; conscript service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); compulsory military service abolished, exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2010)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,065,782
females age 16-49: 1,995,451 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,709,592
females age 16-49: 1,649,875 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 58,937
female: 56,225 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98



Disputes - international:
none

 

Information from the CIA's "The World Fact Book" 2010

 

 

 

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